Vision Therapy and Visual Processing – Los Angeles and Orange County

Comprehensive Vision Therapy Guide

Visual Processing Institute

Unlock Vision Brilliance: Comprehensive Guide to Optometric Rehabilitation Visual Therapy

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At Visual Processing Institute, we specialize in comprehensive vision therapy, guiding individuals through optometric rehabilitation to enhance visual skills and processing. Our therapy guide offers tailored solutions for improving visual function, empowering individuals to reach their full potential.

Visual processing is an integral aspect of visual therapy as it focuses on how the brain interprets and makes sense of visual information received from the eyes. Visual therapy aims to improve visual processing abilities such as eye tracking, focusing, depth perception, and visual integration, which are crucial for tasks like reading, writing, and comprehension.

Many optometrists focus primarily on eyesight correction. For issues related to visual processing skills, focus, or eye coordination, a neuro-optometrist may be needed. These specialized eye doctors, like Dr. McCartin, diagnose and treat conditions such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (eye misalignment), and other vision problems stemming from how the brain processes what you see.

Without proper training in neuro optometry, many optometrists may overlook or misdiagnose visual processing issues, leading to ineffective treatment plans. Therefore, seeking care from a qualified neuro optometrist or vision therapist is essential for addressing the underlying causes of visual processing deficits and optimizing visual function.

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Steven Lockhart is the Chief Executive Officer of the Visual Performance Institute and has worked within the health care field for more than two decades. Mr. Lockhart put together this comprehensive guide for those looking for more information about visual therapy and how visual processing works.

Unlocking the Power of Vision Therapy: A Comprehensive Therapy Guide

We often think of vision as simply how well we can see an eye chart. Those rows of shrinking letters tell part of the story, measuring eyesight, or what optometrists call visual acuity. But the truth is, there’s so much more to vision than meets the eye! It’s a complex partnership between our eyes and our brain, dictating how efficiently we gather, process, understand, and act upon the vast amount of information constantly flooding our visual system.

Imagine your vision as a high-speed data network. Your eyes are like powerful cameras, capturing raw images of the world. Your brain is the supercomputer processing that data: decoding shapes, recognizing colors, judging distances, making lightning-fast calculations so you can move smoothly through your environment. When this system isn’t functioning optimally, it’s like having a powerful computer with a slow internet connection. The potential is there, but it’s hampered. This can cause a wide range of issues that impact everything from reading and learning to sports performance and even everyday comfort.

This is where vision therapy comes in. Offered by specialized optometrists, often called behavioral or developmental optometrists, vision therapy is a powerful tool designed to upgrade this whole data network. It targets the underlying skills and connections within the visual system, helping it operate more smoothly and efficiently. This allows you to unlock your potential and enhance your overall quality of life. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the ins and outs of vision therapy, why it works, how it can help, and why it might be the solution waiting to transform your life or the life of someone you love.

What is Vision Therapy?

Think of vision therapy as targeted brain training for your eyes. While traditional eyeglasses or contact lenses correct eyesight, vision therapy addresses the underlying skills involved in how your eyes and brain work together. At its core, vision therapy is a personalized program of exercises and activities designed to improve the following key areas:

  • Focus Flexibility: The ability to smoothly and efficiently shift focus between near and far objects. Imagine trying to read a book with your eyes “stuck” at a distance setting – it would be blurry and frustrating! Focus flexibility is what lets us transition rapidly between the whiteboard, our notes, and anything else that demands our attention.

  • Eye Coordination (Teaming): How well both eyes work together to provide clear, single vision and depth perception. Our eyes are a team, and like any team, they need to coordinate perfectly. When eye teaming breaks down, problems like double vision, eye strain, or difficulty judging distances can occur.

  • Eye Tracking: The ability to accurately follow moving objects or lines of text, crucial for reading and sports. Have you ever watched someone whose eyes jump around while reading? This shows inefficient eye tracking. Good tracking skills allow our eyes to flow smoothly across a page or anticipate the trajectory of a moving ball.

  • Visual Processing: How the brain interprets visual information, affecting areas like visualization, memory, and visual-motor coordination. Visual processing goes beyond just seeing something. It’s about understanding, interpreting, and using that visual information. Issues here can make reading comprehension difficult, even with word recognition being intact. It also impacts things like remembering what we’ve just seen or coordinating our hand movements based on what our eyes tell us.

Beyond Eyeglasses: Why Vision Therapy is Different

Imagine you’re trying to hammer a nail but have the wrong tool. Glasses are a bit like that – a fantastic tool for the right job. If the issue is purely blurry vision at a specific distance, glasses are often the perfect fix. But if those visual skills mentioned above are the problem, a different approach is needed.

Vision therapy aims to strengthen the very foundation of how you see the world. It’s more akin to going to the gym to build specific muscles. Through targeted exercises and activities, your optometrist helps retrain those core visual skills, potentially leading to a wide array of benefits that no glasses prescription can provide on its own.

The Power of Personalization

One key advantage of vision therapy is customization. No two people have the exact same vision struggles. Your vision therapist will conduct a comprehensive vision evaluation that goes far beyond a standard eye chart exam. Based on these findings, they’ll design a therapy program with a unique mix of exercises and activities aimed at your specific challenges and goals.

Visual Processing: The Foundation Vision Therapy Strengthens

Visual processing encompasses the complex ways our brain interprets the vast amount of information our eyes take in. It’s what allows us to understand shapes, recognize faces, track moving objects, and make sense of our surroundings. When this system isn’t functioning smoothly, it impacts our ability to learn, perform, and navigate the world with ease. Vision therapy isn’t just about fixing eyesight; it strengthens the very foundation of visual processing – those vital eye-brain connections that allow us to not just see, but truly understand our visual world.

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When Is Vision Therapy Needed?

Vision therapy offers a powerful solution for numerous challenges affecting children, teens, and adults. However, knowing exactly when to consider this treatment can be confusing. Here’s a closer look at some of the key areas where vision therapy can make a profound difference:

Learning-Related Vision Problems

  • Beyond Just Reading: Academic success depends on multiple visual skills. Vision therapy helps with slow reading, skipping lines, losing place, poor comprehension, frequent headaches during schoolwork, and messy handwriting.
  • The Focus Factor: Struggles with sustained attention might be due to difficulty shifting focus between the board, desk, and books, making tasks tiring and frustrating, even with 20/20 eyesight.
  • Eye Tracking Troubles: If a child’s eyes don’t accurately follow text, they’ll likely read slowly, reread frequently, and tire easily. They may even unknowingly compensate by using their finger as a guide.
  • Visual Memory Matters: Weak visual memory makes it harder to recall what was just read or to remember sight words and spelling patterns essential for fluency and academic progress.

Convergence Insufficiency (CI)

  • More Than Blurry: CI is one of the most common, yet often misdiagnosed, vision disorders. While blurriness at near is a classic sign, it also causes headaches, eyestrain, double vision, and difficulty staying on task during reading or close work.
  • Hidden Consequences: Untreated CI erodes a child’s confidence in their reading ability. They may avoid schoolwork, develop behavioral issues out of frustration, or see their grades suffer.

Sports Performance

  • Vision for Victory: From hand-eye coordination to dynamic vision (tracking moving objects), vision plays a crucial role in athletic performance. Vision therapy can sharpen these specific skills.
  • Enhancing the Edge: Improved reaction time, visual processing speed, depth perception, and wider peripheral awareness can provide athletes of all levels with a competitive edge on the field or court.
  • Sport-Specific Training: Vision therapy can be tailored to the specific demands of a sport. Baseball players, for example, may focus heavily on tracking skills, while a golfer may prioritize depth perception and visual judgment.

Post-Concussion Recovery

  • Disrupted Pathways: Even a mild concussion can disrupt how the brain processes visual information. Lingering symptoms like blurry vision, difficulty focusing, sensitivity to light, dizziness, and headaches can hinder school, work, or sports.
  • Retraining the Brain: Vision therapy offers specialized exercises to help the brain re-learn healthy visual pathways, promoting faster recovery and smoother return to activities.
  • A Team Approach: In some cases, vision therapy works alongside occupational or physical therapy for comprehensive concussion rehabilitation.

Amblyopia (“Lazy Eye”) and Strabismus

  • Early Intervention is Key: While patching or eye drops might be the first step, vision therapy is often crucial in treating amblyopia by strengthening the weaker eye and improving overall eye coordination.
  • Beyond Appearances: Strabismus (eye misalignment) isn’t just a cosmetic concern. Vision therapy helps eyes work together, improves depth perception, and may reduce the need for surgery in some cases.

Visual Stress and Discomfort

  • When Glasses Aren’t Enough: Headaches, eye strain, frequent blinking, light sensitivity, and dry eyes can severely impact quality of life, even with corrective lenses.
  • Finding the Root Cause: Vision therapy digs deeper. Weak eye teaming, subtle focusing issues, or poor visual stamina might be contributing factors, allowing for targeted solutions.
  • Comfort in a Digital World. With our reliance on screens, visual stress is on the rise. Vision therapy can enhance visual comfort, allowing for more productive work and study sessions.

Important Note: If you or your child experience any of these difficulties, a comprehensive eye and vision exam by a behavioral or developmental optometrist is essential. They can pinpoint the exact nature of the problem and determine if vision therapy is the right path for achieving lasting improvement.

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What Does Vision Therapy Consist Of?

No two vision therapy programs are alike! After a comprehensive eye and vision exam, your optometrist creates a customized plan based on your specific needs and goals. While the exercises and tools may vary, the focus is always on strengthening the core visual skills essential for comfortable, effective vision. Here’s a closer look at what you might encounter in your treatment program:

  • Vision Therapy Exercises: The Heart of the Program

    Vision therapy exercises are like workouts for your eyes and brain. They are designed to be both challenging and engaging. Some examples include:

    • Focusing Activities: Switching focus between targets at different distances, using lenses or special instruments, helps with tasks like copying from the whiteboard to your desk.
    • Eye Movement Exercises: Following moving targets with your eyes in specific patterns strengthens visual tracking, crucial for smooth reading and sports skills.
    • Convergence Exercises: Activities where you focus on an object as it moves closer may involve fun tools like a “Brock String” with beads. These improve eye teaming for close-up work.
  • Prisms: Bending Light for Brain Training

    Prisms are special lenses that temporarily bend light entering the eye. This might sound odd, but it forces your visual system to adapt. When the prisms are removed, your eyes and brain have gained flexibility and coordination, improving everything from reading stamina to double vision.

  • Computerized Programs: High-Tech Visual Skills Training

    Software programs tailored for vision therapy offer a dynamic and interactive experience. You might track moving targets on the screen, boost your reaction speed, or work on visual memory – some even feel like video games!

  • The Balance Connection: Why It Matters for Vision

    While surprising to some, balance exercises often play a role in vision therapy. Your sense of balance (the vestibular system) and your visual system are closely linked. Improving coordination and stability can directly benefit your visual skills and reduce dizziness that may be stemming from a vision problem.

  • Eye-Hand Coordination: More Than Just for Kids

    Fine motor tasks like beading, completing mazes, or even playing catch all help to fine-tune how your eyes guide your hands. While often associated with children, these exercises are important for adults too, especially in sports or anyone struggling with visual discomfort during detail-oriented tasks.

Making it Effective & Enjoyable

Your vision therapy program will likely involve a mix of in-office sessions and home exercises to reinforce your progress. Therapists understand the importance of keeping things positive and engaging. Depending on your age and interests, exercises might be incorporated into games, puzzles, and other activities to help you stay motivated.

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Skills You Should Learn through Vision Therapy

  1. Eye Tracking: Enhancing the ability to smoothly and accurately follow moving objects or lines of text.

  2. Focusing: Strengthening the capacity to maintain clear vision at various distances, reducing eye strain and fatigue.

  3. Binocular Vision: Improving the coordination between the two eyes to create a single, unified image and prevent double vision.

  4. Depth Perception: Enhancing the perception of depth and spatial relationships, crucial for tasks like judging distances and navigating the environment.

  5. Visual Processing: Improving the brain’s ability to interpret and make sense of visual information received from the eyes, aiding in tasks like reading, writing, and comprehension.

  6. Visual Memory: Enhancing the capacity to store and recall visual information, important for tasks like recognizing faces, remembering sight words, and following instructions.

  7. Visual Motor Integration: Improving hand-eye coordination and the ability to accurately guide movements based on visual input, beneficial for tasks like handwriting, sports, and fine motor activities.

  8. Peripheral Awareness: Increasing awareness of objects and movement in the peripheral visual field, enhancing overall situational awareness and safety.

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How Long Does Vision Therapy Take?

While everyone’s vision therapy journey is unique, the typical program of around 40 in-office sessions provides a helpful starting point. However, it’s crucial to understand that vision therapy isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution, and some individuals may see progress sooner, while others may need a longer duration of treatment.

Factors Influencing Duration

Several key factors can influence how long your or your child’s vision therapy program may last:

  • Severity of the Condition: More complex vision problems, or those that have been present for a long time, may require longer treatment to fully address the underlying issues.
  • Age and Neuroplasticity: Younger brains often exhibit greater neuroplasticity – the ability to change and adapt. This can sometimes lead to faster progress in children compared to adults, although adult vision therapy is absolutely effective!
  • Consistency and Compliance: Regular attendance at sessions and dedicated effort with home exercises are essential for optimal progress. Any gaps or inconsistencies in therapy will naturally lengthen the process.
  • Individual Response: Just like some people learn new skills faster than others, response to vision therapy varies. Your optometrist will monitor your progress closely and adjust the plan as needed.

The Journey, Not the Sprint

While it’s understandable to want quick results, it’s important to view vision therapy as a journey towards lasting visual skills improvement. Think of it as similar to physical therapy after an injury: it takes time and focused effort to retrain the body, and the same is true for retraining the visual system.

Signs of Progress

Don’t get discouraged if you don’t see dramatic changes overnight. Progress in vision therapy often happens incrementally. Your optometrist will conduct periodic assessments to track the following positive signs:

  • Improved Performance on Vision Tests: You’ll see objective improvements in areas like focus flexibility, eye tracking, or binocular vision.
  • Ease with Daily Tasks: Headaches may lessen, reading may become less tiresome, or sports performance may start to improve.
  • Subjective Feedback: You or your child might report less eye strain, better focus, or a newfound love of reading – these qualitative changes matter too!

It’s Worth the Investment

Remember, vision therapy is an investment in your or your child’s overall well-being. The improvements gained – whether it’s reading with confidence, enjoying sports without visual stress, or simply feeling more comfortable throughout the day – have a far-reaching impact. Trust the process, celebrate small victories, and remain committed to unlocking your full visual potential.

Is Vision Therapy Effective?

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Kalie McCartin, O.D – Owner/Neuro-Optometrist

Vision therapy has a strong track record of success, especially for conditions like convergence insufficiency. However, its effectiveness extends far beyond this single condition. Decades of studies, clinical experience, and countless patient success stories demonstrate the transformative power of vision therapy. Let’s delve deeper into the evidence and outcomes this unique treatment offers:

Research-Backed Results: Multiple peer-reviewed studies support the effectiveness of vision therapy. For instance, the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), a major multi-center study, found significant and sustained improvements in symptoms and reading ability for those who underwent vision therapy compared to those who received a placebo treatment. Research extends to other areas as well, such as vision therapy’s impact on reducing concussion symptoms and improving visual skills crucial for sports success.

Real-Life Improvements: Beyond the numbers, vision therapy’s positive outcomes are seen in classrooms, workplaces, and everyday life. Children who struggled to read become absorbed in books, adults plagued by post-concussion headaches finally find relief, athletes sharpen their competitive edge, and countless individuals experience a boost in confidence as their visual world becomes less of a struggle.

Why Vision Therapy Works: The Science of Neuroplasticity

At the heart of vision therapy’s effectiveness lies the incredible adaptability of the brain, a concept known as neuroplasticity. Just as physical therapy retrains injured muscles, vision therapy exercises target the neural pathways involved in visual processing. With repeated, targeted practice, the brain can create new connections and strengthen existing ones, leading to lasting improvements in how we see and interact with the world.

Trusted Resources: Organizations like the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) ( provide a wealth of research, clinical guidelines, and information for both patients and professionals, further solidifying the legitimacy of vision therapy as an evidence-based treatment approach.

Addressing Skepticism: While vision therapy is widely supported by research, a degree of skepticism still exists. It’s essential to distinguish vision therapy from general, unsupported “eye exercises” sometimes found online. Optometrists offering vision therapy utilize proven techniques, personalized programs, and progress monitoring for optimal results.

The Power of Patient Stories: Perhaps the most compelling evidence comes directly from those whose lives have been transformed by vision therapy. A frustrated student who finally found joy in reading, an athlete who experienced a performance breakthrough, or an adult regaining their visual comfort and independence – these personal stories illustrate vision therapy’s tangible impact that extends well beyond just eyesight.

What if I (or my child) Don't Do Vision Therapy?

The decision to pursue vision therapy extends far beyond the immediate struggles your child faces today. It’s about potential, opportunities, and the trajectory of their future. Here’s a deeper look at the consequences of leaving these hidden vision problems unaddressed:

Academic Struggles: From Frustration to Falling Behind

Without intervention, the child may continue to face challenges with reading, writing, and overall academic performance. The joy of learning can quickly be replaced by ongoing frustration and a sense of falling further behind. Difficulty decoding text, slow reading speed, and struggles with focus erode the foundation of success across all subjects. Poor grades may become the norm, and the gap between your child’s potential and performance could widen over time.

Low Self-Esteem: The Weight of Feeling “Less Than”

Continual difficulty in school, despite effort, can significantly chip away at a child’s confidence. Self-doubt starts to creep in. “Why can’t I do this?” and “Am I not smart enough?” become painful internal questions. A child struggling to see and process information may compare themselves unfavorably to their peers who don’t seem to have the same hurdles, further damaging their sense of self-worth and potential.

Social and Emotional Fallout: Beyond the Classroom

Academic struggles rarely stay confined to the classroom. Feelings of isolation, inadequacy, or “not fitting in” can arise. Frustration that doesn’t have a clear source may lead to behavioral outbursts or a withdrawal from social interaction. The child who loves school can transform into the one who dreads it, impacting friendships and their overall emotional well-being.

Missed Opportunities: The Ripple Effect

Imagine the doors that may stay closed because underlying vision issues remain unaddressed. The child who could be a passionate reader might abandon books entirely. The budding athlete who struggles with visual coordination may give up on sports. Career paths could feel limited, hobbies might lack enjoyment, and the ability to reach their full potential across all aspects of life might be compromised.

Persistent Vision Problems & Beyond

Vision problems often don’t resolve on their own. Without proper treatment, some issues might worsen, making learning even more difficult as demands increase in later school years. Untreated convergence issues could make extended reading nearly impossible. Blurriness, headaches, and eye strain could become constant companions, potentially impacting a wide range of activities beyond schoolwork.

A Note of Hope: It’s important to remember that it’s never too late to seek help. While early intervention is ideal, vision therapy can be beneficial for individuals of various ages. If your child is experiencing any of the challenges discussed, seeking a comprehensive eye and vision exam from a behavioral optometrist is a crucial step towards unlocking their brighter future.

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Your Vision, Your Future: The Transformative Power of Vision Therapy

Throughout this guide, we’ve explored the world of vision therapy, venturing beyond simple eyesight into the intricate ways our eyes and brain work together. You’ve learned how visual skills impact everything from a child’s success in the classroom to an athlete’s split-second reactions on the field. We’ve discussed the conditions that vision therapy addresses, its personalized approach, and the compelling evidence supporting its effectiveness.

Perhaps you started this journey seeking answers for a struggling child or wondering if your own nagging eye strain and headaches had a deeper cause. Maybe you were an athlete looking for that extra edge or a concussion patient struggling to get back to your normal life. Wherever your path began, the knowledge you’ve gained about vision therapy has the potential to be transformative.

If underlying vision problems are like invisible weights holding someone back, vision therapy is the process of identifying those weights and providing the tools to overcome them. It’s more than just making blurry vision clear; it’s about unlocking fluid focus, effortless eye teaming, and enhanced visual processing that makes daily life smoother.

Think of the child who always dreaded reading now reaching for books with enthusiasm. Imagine the athlete whose improved visual skills take their performance to the next level. Envision the adult regaining visual comfort, headaches becoming a distant memory. These aren’t just abstract possibilities; they are the very real outcomes that vision therapy offers.

The decision to explore vision therapy is an investment in potential – in yourself or a loved one. It’s about removing hidden obstacles to create a brighter, less frustrating, more opportunity-filled future. Your vision – and the visual processing that helps you make sense of the world – is too important not to give it the specialized attention it deserves.

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